Chapter 8 Test Items

The History of American Education



Match the description in column B with the term in column A.



Column A

Column B


1.   apprenticeship

a.   developed to prepare teachers


2.   dame school

b.   arrangement for masters to teach young people a trade


3.   Northwest Ordinance (1787)

c.   funding targeted to specific populations or goals


4.   Old Deluder Satan Law

d.   designed to strengthen U.S. education after Sputnik


5.   middle school

e.   provided assistance for veterans’ education


6.   Committee of Ten

f.   formed to develop a national policy for high schools


7.   normal school

g.   developed to educate girls


8.   Carnegie Unit

h.   in-home teaching during colonial times


9.   categorical grants

i.    set aside land for educational purposes


10.   National Defense Education Act

j.    type of school introduced in 20th century



k.   measurement for evaluating student progress



l.    required Massachusetts towns to provide education for young people


MATCHING QUESTIONS II: Educators’ Hall of Fame

Match the description in column B with the educator in column A.



Column A

Column B


11.   Jean Piaget

a.   developed innovative strategies for teaching children to read, including the “key vocabulary” system


12.   Mary McLeod Bethune

b.   author of The Process of Education; advocated teaching the structure of knowledge


13.   Friedrich Froebel

c.   advocated increased educational opportunities for women


14.   Maria Montessori

d.   provided a theory, based on observations, of cognitive development


15.   Sylvia Ashton-Warner

e.   noted African American leader and founder of southern black college


16.   Emma Hart Willard

f.   advocate of progressive education


17.   Horace Mann

g.   founded the first kindergarten


18.   B.F. Skinner

h.   led the Common School Movement


19.   Jerome Bruner

i.    advocated the inclusion of morals and values as primary goal, and a well-balanced curriculum


20.   John Dewey

j.    author of Pedagogy of the Oppressed; saw education as way to transform society



k.   advocated breaking learning down into manageable small steps and using rewards to reinforce learning



l.    created innovative methods and practical materials that are widely used in today’s early childhood education programs




*denotes more challenging question

(Higher Order Question) - denotes a question at the application or higher level of Bloom’s taxonomy


21.       In early colonial times, education was aimed at

a.     teaching practical subjects such as navigation and bookkeeping

b.     saving souls through religious instruction

c.     keeping children out of mischief, freeing up men and women to toil in the fields or in the home

d.     educating citizens for the demands of a democracy

22.       The “Old Deluder Satan Law” of 1647 required that

a.     all citizens of Massachusetts present themselves periodically to recite Scripture

b.     Massachusetts provide education for young people

c.     apprenticeships be prohibited in the state of Massachusetts

d.     all citizens of Massachusetts be assessed to determine reading and writing skills

23.       Only 15 years after arriving in America, the Puritans established the

a.     Latin grammar school

b.     Free Academy

c.     junior high school

d.     common school

*24.     (Higher Order Question) In the colonial period, which area offered the most structured, formal education?

a.     the northern colonies

b.     the middle colonies

c.     the southern colonies

d.     actually, the colonial educational system was remarkably uniform across all locations

25.       Which one of the following features of U.S. education today CANNOT be traced to colonial times?

a.     local control of schools

b.     compulsory education

c.     tax-supported schools

d.     teacher competency tests

26.       The first real textbook used in 18th century colonial schools promoting not only mastery of the alphabet but also religious morality was the

a.     hornbook

b.     New England Primer

c.     American Spelling Book

d.     McGuffey Reader

*27.     Benjamin Franklin’s Academy upheld all of the following principles regarding education EXCEPT

a.     education should be available to both boys and girls

b.     school curricula should emphasize practical subjects

c.     education should be available to all children regardless of economic class

d.     education should be free from religious influence

28.       Education became a state responsibility through the

a.     Tenth Amendment

b.     Fourteenth Amendment

c.     Elementary and Secondary Education Act

d.     Northwest Ordinance

29.       The common school movement represented

a.     Benjamin Franklin’s attempt to provide education to both boys and girls

b.     an early version of the drive to promote cultural literacy

c.     the effort to establish public elementary schooling          

d.     the effort to standardize curriculum in grammar schools and academies

30.       The name most closely associated with the common school movement is

a.     John Dewey

b.     Horace Mann

c.     Friedrich Froebel

d.     Maria Montessori

31.       (Higher Order Question) Which of the following best describes the “gendered” nature of teaching in the U.S.?

a.     Teaching has always been a “pink-collar” career, with women claiming the vast majority of teaching positions.

b.     Men have dominated teaching since the mid-19th century.

c.     The U.S. educational system has provided a welcome refuge from the gender discrimination typical in other careers.

d.     Males and females have both been considered “unnatural” for choosing a career in teaching.

 32.      The importance of the 1874 Kalamazoo, Michigan, court case was that it legally validated public funds for support of

a.     religious schools

b.     elementary schools

c.     secondary schools

d.     colleges

*33.     (Higher Order Question) Early school reform reports such as the recommendations of the Committee of Ten and the Cardinal Principles of Secondary Education show

a.     the fundamental drive of U.S. education toward equality of opportunity

b.     a split between forces pushing for academic rigor and forces pushing for more student-centered education

c.     little faith in education

d.     that reformers concern themselves solely with subject-matter guidelines

*34.     (Higher Order Question) The recommendations of the Committee of Ten are MOST SIMILAR to those of

a.     the Eight-Year Study

b.     Cardinal Principles of Secondary Education

c.     The Process of Education

d.     A Nation at Risk: The Imperative for Educational Reform

35.       The name most closely associated with progressive education is

a.     John Dewey

b.     Horace Mann

c.     B.F. Skinner

d.     Jerome Bruner

36.       The decision outlawing racial segregation in schools was

a.     PL 94-142

b.     Plessy v. Ferguson

c.     the 1874 Kalamazoo, Michigan, court case

d.     Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka

37.       (Higher Order Question) Which of the following BEST describes the influence of the federal government on education?

a.     while prohibited by the Constitution from providing funds directly to schools, the federal government exerts enormous influence through court cases such as Plessy v. Ferguson and Brown v. Board of Education

b.     the federal government influences education most through its influential studies, such as the Eight-Year Study and the Committee of Ten

c.     although the Constitution prescribes no clear role for the federal government in education, federal influence is strong and growing

d.     the federal government has been exerting less and less influence over education in the U.S.; influence has been growing at the state level

38.       Supporters of categorical grants believe that federal funding should

a.     promote specific programs or assist specific populations

b.     respond to international economic competition

c.     reduce competition among states and communities for federal support

d.     reduce federal influence on the direction of education

*39.     (Higher Order Question) All of the following actively advocated child-centered education EXCEPT

a.     Jean-Jacques Rousseau

b.     B.F. Skinner

c.     Sylvia Ashton-Warner

d.     John Dewey

*40.     (Higher Order Question) All of the following worked to make equal educational opportunity a reality EXCEPT

a.     Horace Mann

b.     Mary McLeod Bethune

c.     Jean Piaget

d.     Emma Hart Willard




41.       Supply a brief description of each educational term.

a.     academy

b.     common school

c.     Cardinal Philosophies of Secondary Education

d.     progressive education

e.     Eight-Year Study

f.      Franklin Academy

         g.   The Process of Education

         h.   Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka

         i.    Northwest Ordinance

         j.    A Nation at Risk: The Imperative for Educational Reform


42.    Circle the century in which each form of schooling first appeared in our nation’s history.

a.   academies                                    17th           18th           19th           20th

b.   colleges and universities              17th           18th           19th           20th

c.   common schools                         17th           18th           19th           20th

d.   dame schools                               17th           18th           19th           20th

e.   English grammar schools             17th           18th           19th           20th

f.    high schools                                17th           18th           19th           20th

g.   home schooling                           17th           18th           19th           20th

h.   junior high schools                      17th           18th           19th           20th

i.    Latin grammar schools                17th           18th           19th           20th

j.    middle schools                             17th           18th           19th           20th

43.    Briefly sketch the arguments faced by Horace Mann in his struggle to establish public elementary schools.